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In , the manufacturing sector employed 1,, workers and the city had , industrial units. Delhi's groundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15, fire and rescue calls per year. Indira Gandhi International Airport , situated to the southwest of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In —16, the airport handled more than 48 million passengers,  making it the busiest airport in India and South Asia.
The Delhi Flying Club , established in with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara , was based at Safdarjung Airport which started operations in , when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister.
A second airport open for commercial flights has been suggested either by expansion of Meerut Airport or construction of a new airport in Greater Noida. In , the Supreme Court of India ruled that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas CNG to tackle increasing vehicular pollution.
Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on Delhi roads. As of [update] , the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, was Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway.
It carries millions of passengers every day. Delhi Metro is the world's tenth-largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's second modern public transportation system, which has revolutionised travel by providing a fast, reliable, safe, and comfortable means of transport. The network consists of six lines with a total length of kilometres miles with stations, which are a mix of underground, at-grade and elevated stations. All stations have escalators, lifts, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains.
There are 18 designated parking sites at Metro stations to further encourage use of the system. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: However, the organisation is under the administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India.
Besides construction and operation of Delhi Metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail, and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. He famously resigned from DMRC taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse, which took five lives. Metro services are being extended to important hubs in the cities that are close to offices, colleges, and tourist spots. This will facilitate easy conveyance for the citizens, who otherwise have to rely on public buses that are heavily crowded and are often stuck in traffic jams.
Remaining five corridors are also approved by National Capital Region Planning Board but are planned in the second phase. In , the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per population were According to the UN this makes Delhi urban area the world's second-largest , after Tokyo ,  although Demographia declares the Jakarta urban area to be the second-largest.
Hinduism is the predominant faith in Delhi.
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Naya Mandir is a historic Jain temple in Old Delhi. Northeast entrance to Delhi's Islamic Jama Masjid. Religion in NCT of Delhi . Hinduism is Delhi's predominant religious faith, with Languages in Delhi . According to the 50th report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities in India, which was submitted in , Hindi is Delhi's most spoken language, with Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India, Although a strong Punjabi Influence can be seen in language , Dress and Cuisine brought by the large number of refugees who came following the partition in the recent migration from other parts of India has made it a melting pot.
This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. Delhi is also identified as the location of Indraprastha , the ancient capital of the Pandavas. The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1, heritage buildings  and monuments as national heritage sites. In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid —India's largest mosque  built in  and the Red Fort. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities.
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New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat , Rajpath , the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regal havelis palatial residences are in the Old City. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles.
Furthermore, no sermons can be delivered, and there can be no ritualistic ceremonies practised. Chandni Chowk , a 17th-century market, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris. Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic Day , Independence Day 15 August and Gandhi Jayanti.
Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom.
Flowers and pankhe —fans embroidered with flowers—are offered to the shrine of the 13th-century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and the Yogmaya temple , both situated in Mehrauli. The Auto Expo , Asia's largest auto show,  is held in Delhi biennially. As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents. The city's classic dishes include butter chicken , dal makhani , shahi paneer , aloo chaat , chaat , dahi bhalla , kachori , gol gappe , samosa , chole bhature , chole kulche , gulab jamun , jalebi and lassi.
The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets. High-profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara. Almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors. It has nearly become a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once.
Other Indian cuisines are also available in this area even though the street specialises in north Indian food. According to Euromonitor International, Delhi ranked as 28th-most visited city in the world and first in India by foreign visitors in One of the largest Hindu temple complexes in the world,  Akshardham is a major tourist attraction in the city. Delhi is also a hub for shopping of all kinds. In —05, approximately The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1. Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education , the NCT government or private organisations.
In , Delhi had colleges, five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges,  seven major universities and nine deemed universities. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi is a premier medical school for treatment and research. As the capital of India, Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions.
Many national media agencies, including the state-owned Press Trust of India , Media Trust of India and Doordarshan , is based in the city. Television programming includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English, and regional-language cable channels offered by multi system operators. Satellite television has yet to gain a large quantity of subscribers in the city.
Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. Amongst the English language newspapers, The Hindustan Times , with a daily circulation of over a million copies, is the single largest daily. Regional language newspapers include the Malayalam daily Malayala Manorama and the Tamil dailies Dinamalar and Dinakaran. Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has gained popularity  since the inauguration of several new stations in Delhi has hosted many major international sporting events, including the first and also the ninth Asian Games,  the Hockey World Cup , the Commonwealth Games and the Cricket World Cup.
Delhi lost bidding for the Asian Games ,  and considered making a bid for the Summer Olympics. The Commonwealth Games , which ran from 3 to 14 October , was one of the largest sports event held in India. Cricket and football are the most popular sports in Delhi. The Feroz Shah Kotla Ground known commonly as the Kotla is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. It is the home ground of the Delhi cricket team , which represents the city in the Ranji Trophy , the premier Indian domestic first-class cricket championship.
Delhi is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 18 January For the generic term, see Capital districts and territories. Not to be confused with New Delhi , the capital of India, located entirely within the city of Delhi. For other uses, see Delhi disambiguation. Megacity and Union territory of India. Union territory and Megacity in India. Union territory and Megacity. History of Delhi and Old Delhi. Prithviraj Chauhan and Delhi Sultanate. Mughal Empire , Hemu , and Maratha Empire.
Environment of Delhi and Geography of Delhi. Environmental issues in Delhi and Air quality in Delhi. Government of Delhi and Government of India. Supreme Court in Delhi is the apex court in the country. The Parliament House in New Delhi government block. Indira Gandhi International Airport 's new terminal in Delhi. It is the busiest airport in South Asia. Anand Vihar Terminal railway station, opened in Signature Bridge on Yamuna river, is the tallest structure in Delhi. Ethnic groups in Delhi. Other or Not stated 0.
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The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 February Archived from the original on 13 February Archived from the original on 31 December The Durbar was largely an official event and not a popular occasion with mass participation like later durbars in and It was attended by the 1st Earl of Lytton — Viceroy of India , maharajas , nawabs and intellectuals. Inside the Victoria Memorial in Calcutta is an inscription taken from the Message of Queen Victoria presented at the Durbar to the people of India:. We trust that the present occasion may tend to unite in bonds of close affection ourselves and our subjects; that from the highest to the humblest, all may feel that under our rule the great principles of liberty, equity, and justice are secured to them; and to promote their happiness, to add to their prosperity, and advance their welfare, are the ever present aims and objects of our Empire.
It was at this glittering durbar that Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi , wearing " homespun spotless white khadi " rose to read a citation on behalf of the grass roots native political organization, the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha , which organization presaged the later rise of the Indian National Congress. Joshi's citation put forth a demand couched in very polite language:. Her Majesty to grant to India the same political and social status as is enjoyed by her British subjects. With this demand, it can be said that the campaign for a free India was formally launched,  which was the beginning of a great transformation for India.
The durbar would later be seen as controversial because it directed funds away from the Great Famine of — The two full weeks of festivities were devised in meticulous detail by Lord Curzon , Viceroy of India. Souvenir guide books were sold and maps of the camping ground distributed. Marketing opportunities were craftily exploited. A special Delhi Durbar Medal was struck, firework displays, exhibitions and glamorous dances held.
The assembly awaiting them displayed possibly the greatest collection of jewels to be seen in one place. Each of the Indian princes was adorned with the most spectacular of his gems from the collections of centuries. Maharajahs came with great retinues from all over India, many of them meeting for the first time while the massed ranks of the Indian armies, under their Commander-in-Chief Lord Kitchener , paraded, played their bands and restrained the crowds of common people.
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On the first day, the Curzons entered the area of festivities, together with the maharajahs, riding on elephants, some with huge gold candelabras stuck on their tusks. The durbar ceremony itself fell on New Year's Day and was followed by days of polo and other sports, dinners, balls, military reviews, bands, and exhibitions. The India Post issued a set of two commemorative souvenir sheets with special cancellation struck on 1 January — 12 noon, a much sought after item for the stamp collectors today.
The event culminated in a grand coronation ball attended only by the highest ranking guests, all reigned over by Lord Curzon and more so by the stunning Lady Curzon in her glittering jewels and regal peacock gown. On 22 March , a royal proclamation announced that the Durbar would be held in December to commemorate the coronation in Britain a few months earlier of George V and Mary of Teck and allow their proclamation as Emperor and Empress of India. Practically every ruling prince and nobleman in India, plus thousands of landed gentry and other persons of note, attended to pay obeisance to their sovereigns.
The official ceremonies lasted from 7 December to 16 December, with the Durbar itself occurring on Tuesday, 12 December.
They received homage from the native princes — including one woman, the Begum of Bhopal — at the shamiana ceremonial tent ; controversy ensued when the Gaekwar of Baroda, Maharajah Emperor Sayajirao III , approached the royal couple without his jewellery on, and after a simple bow turned his back to them when leaving. His action was interpreted at the time as a sign of dissent to British rule. The annulment of the Partition of Bengal was also announced during the ceremony . The day after, on 13 December, the royal couple made a darshan an appearance at the jharoka balcony window of Red Fort , to receive half a million or more of the common people who had come to greet them, a custom which was started by Shahjahan.
Malik Mohammed Umar Hayat Khan , but their duties were more ceremonial than heraldic. Twenty-six thousand eight hundred 26, Delhi Durbar Medals in silver were awarded to the men and officers of the British and Indian Armies who participated in the event.