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As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. Chennai had the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35, in , 82, in and estimated at over , by The Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", [2] with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city.

Home to the Tamil film industry , Chennai is also known as a major film production centre. Chennai has been selected as one of the Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Smart Cities Mission. The nativity of the name Chennai , being of Telugu origin, is clearly proved by historians. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name.

The name Madras originated even before the British presence was established in India. There have been clear evidences that Madras is not of alien origin. Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India ASI , Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, and pre-historic communities resided in the settlement.

The region around Chennai has served as an important administrative, military, and economic centre for many centuries. During the 1st century CE , a poet and weaver named Thiruvalluvar lived in the town of Mylapore a neighbourhood of present Chennai. They also defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras , Cholas and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival.

Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire , which ruled the region during the medieval period. In , the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat , north of Chennai. George , the first major English settlement in India, [57] which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city and urban Chennai, grew around this Fort.

George, due to a change in the Government. In , Fort St. George and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais , the Governor of Mauritius , who plundered the town and its outlying villages.

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Gradually, the city grew into a major naval base and became the central administrative centre for the British in South India. After India gained its independence in , the city became the capital of Madras State , which was renamed as Tamil Nadu in Because of Madras and its people, English now exists in India, otherwise Hindi might have been made the sole official language in India. Chennai is located on the south—eastern coast of India in the north—eastern part of Tamil Nadu on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains.

Its average elevation is around 6. A third river, the Kortalaiyar , travels through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the Bay of Bengal, at Ennore. The estuary of this river is heavily polluted with effluents released by the industries in the region.


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Several lakes of varying size are located on the western fringes of the city. Some areas of the city have the problem of excess iron content in groundwater. Chennai's soil is mostly clay , shale and sandstone. In these areas, rainwater runoff percolates quickly through the soil. Chennai is classified as being in Seismic Zone III , indicating a moderate risk of damage from earthquakes. The crust has granite rocks indicating volcanic activities in the past. The southern stretch of Chennai's coast from Tiruvanmiyur to Neelangarai are favoured by the endangered Olive Ridley sea turtles to lay eggs every winter.

A large number of cattle egrets , pond herons and other waterbirds can be seen in the rivers of Cooum and Adyar. About 75, birds migrate to Chennai every year. Guindy National Park is a protected area within the city limits. Wildlife conservation and research activities take place at Arignar Anna Zoological Park including Olive ridley sea turtle conservation.

A total of species of trees belonging to 94 genera and 42 families are found in the city. Chennai has three rivers and many lakes spread across the city. Urbanization has led to shrinkage of water bodies and wetlands. The city lies on the thermal equator [] and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature.

The lowest recorded temperature was The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the north—east monsoon winds, from mid—October to mid—December. Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city. Historically, Chennai has relied on the annual rains of the monsoon season to replenish water reservoirs, as no major rivers flow through the area.

The city of Chennai is located on the east coast of India, which is also known as the Coromandel Coast. Cyclones and depressions are common features during the season. Cyclones in particular are really unpredictable. They can even move towards Orissa , west Bengal , Bangladesh , and also Myanmar. The season between October and December is referred as the NE monsoon period. In Chennai received record breaking rains since , which caused massive floods. The entire east coast is vulnerable to cyclones during the monsoon period.

For example, in a major cyclone named " Cyclone Sidr " skipped Chennai and headed towards Bangladesh. The result was a failure of NE monsoon in Chennai, that particular year. Even in the past, there has been many occasions where Cyclones had a great influence in the monsoon. As of , the city had a green cover of The city had a built-up area of 71 percent. Waterbodies cover an estimated 6 percent of the total area, and at least 8 percent of the area has classified as open space. Chennai city is governed by the Greater Chennai Corporation formerly "Corporation of Madras" , which was established in It is the oldest surviving municipal corporation in India and the second oldest surviving corporation in the world.

The larger suburbs are governed by town municipalities and the smaller ones are governed by town councils called panchayats. Under the gamut of the CMDA are 5 parliamentary and 28 assembly constituencies. The city's contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram in the south, Chengalpattu and Maraimalai Nagar in the southwest, and Sriperumpudur , Arakkonam , Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur to the west.

The Madras High Court , is the highest judicial authority in the state, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. It consists of police stations and is headed by a commissioner of police. The metropolitan suburbs are policed by the Chennai Metropolitan Police , headed by the Chennai Police Commissionerate , and the outer district areas of the CMDA are policed by the Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur police departments. As of [update] prior to the expansion of Chennai Corporation area , Chennai city has a sanctioned strength of 14, police personnel.

With a population density of 26, persons per square kilometre, the city had 1 policeman for every people. The Chennai suburban police had about 4, police personnel and a ratio of 1: Since the 19th century, when Western scholars proposed that Dravidian languages , which dominated the southern region of India, formed a different linguistic group to that of the Indo-Aryan languages that are predominant in the north of the subcontinent, the aspects of Tamil nationalism gained prominence.

This resulted in the Anti-Hindi agitations in the city and across the state. However, the post- Independence re-organisation of Indian states according to linguistic and ethnic basis has moderated Tamil nationalism, especially the demand for separation from the Indian Union. The Anti-Hindi agitations in mids made the DMK more popular and more powerful political force in the state. The agitations of the s played a crucial role in the defeat of the Tamil Nadu Congress party in the elections and the continuing dominance of Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu politics.

Being the capital of the Madras Province that covered a vast area of the Deccan region, Chennai remained the centre of politics in the southern region of India during the British colonial era. After Independence , it remained the centre of political activities of the state of Tamil Nadu. Chennai is the birthplace of the idea of the Indian National Congress , commonly known as the Congress Party.

Hume , [] the idea was originally conceived in a private meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in the city in December After independence, the city hosted the Congress in in its suburb of Avadi. Chennai is also the birthplace of several regional political movements since the British era. South Indian Welfare Association, one of the earliest regional parties, was founded in , which later came to be known as the Justice Party , which was the main opposition party to the Indian National Congress in the state. Ramasami popularly known as 'Periyar'. The party was a non-political party that demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu.

Annadurai , the party was split. The DMK decided to enter into politics in Water is drawn from Red Hills Lake and Chembarambakkam Lake , the primary water reservoirs of the city, [] and treated at water treatment plants located at Kilpauk, Puzhal, Chembarambakkam [] and supplied to the city through 27 water distribution stations.

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The Corporation of Chennai provides civic services to the city. Garbage collection in some of the wards is contracted to Ramky Enviro Engineers Limited, a private company, [] while the Corporation looks after the removal and processing of solid waste in the others, [] with a superintendent engineer managing the channels. As of [update] , 8 transfer stations exist within the city for treating the waste.

The Chennai City Region has post offices, of which nearly operate from rented premises. With the history of many neighbourhoods of the city such as Mylapore , Triplicane , and Tiruvanmiyur antedating that of the city, the architecture of Chennai ranges in a wide chronology. The oldest buildings in the city dates from the 7th and 8th centuries CE, which include the Kapaleeshwarar Temple in Mylapore and the Parthasarathy Temple in Triplicane, built in the Dravidian architecture. This architecture includes various styles, such as those of the Pallavas , the Cholas , and the Vijayanagara empires.

The associated Agraharam architecture, which consists of traditional row houses surrounding a temple, can still be seen in these areas. Chennai ranks second to Kolkata of Indian heritage buildings. With the advent of the Mugals and the British , the city saw a rise in a blend of Hindu , Islamic and Gothic revival styles, resulting in the distinct Indo-Saracenic style.

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George built in The construction of the National Art Gallery in Madras was completed in It was opened, on 23 January , by the Governor of Fort St. The Santhome Church , which was originally built by the Portuguese in and is believed to house the remains of the apostle St. Thomas , was rebuilt in in neo-Gothic style.

By the early 20th century, the art deco too made its entry upon the city's urban landscape. From the s onwards, many buildings in George Town were built in this style, including the United India building presently housing LIC and the Burma Shell building presently the Chennai House , both built in the s, and the Dare House, built in This resulted in the city expanding horizontally, unlike other metropolitan cities where vertical growth is prominent. On the contrary, the peripheral regions, especially on the southern and south-western sides, are experiencing vertical growth with the construction of buildings up to 60 floors.

A resident of Chennai is called a Chennaite. Tamils form the majority of Chennai's population. English is spoken largely by white-collar workers , [] often mixed into Tamil. Chennai, along with Bengaluru , Mumbai and Delhi , is one of the few Indian cities that are home to a diverse population of ethno-religious communities. As per the religious census of , Chennai's population was In a survey titled 'Emerging trends in real estate in Asia Pacific ', Chennai emerged in the top 25 real estate destinations list in the Asia Pacific region.

The city ranked 22nd in the list. Per census, there are 1. About 43, of them are kept vacant. In the suburbs of Chennai located in Tiruvallur and Kancheepuram districts, the figures of vacant houses 56, and 71,, respectively. Of the existing housing stock in the city, about , houses are not in good condition, necessitating either to rebuild or build new units. About 26, households live in houses without any room and another , families with an average size of five members live in small dwelling units with only one room. An earlier estimate shows that there is a need to generate about , units for low-income groups by As of [update] , an estimated population of 11, 0.

Per Supreme Court guidelines, the city needs 65 shelters for the homeless. However, it has only 15, of which 8 are functioning and two are under renovation. As of , there are more than 2. Chennai is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role.

The "Fort Museum" inside the premises of Fort St. George is an important museum having a noteworthy collection of objects of the British era in its collection. Chennai is a major centre for music, art and culture in India. In , for the first time in India, Madras University introduced a course of music, as part of the Bachelor of Arts curriculum. An arts festival called the Chennai Sangamam , which showcases not only various arts of Tamil Nadu but also from the neighbouring states, like kalari from Kerala , which is a major attraction, is held in January every year.

The Speciality of Chennai Sangamam is that the various programmes are held near or at the various famous landmarks in the city so that everyone in the city has access to the programmes and there is no fee charged for entry for any of the programmes. The city has a diverse theatre scene and is one of the important centres for Bharata Natyam , a classical dance form that originated in Tamil Nadu and is the oldest dance of India. Madras is divided into four broad regions: North, Central, South and West. North Madras is primarily an industrial area.

South Madras and West Madras, previously mostly residential, are fast becoming commercial, home to a growing number of information technology firms, financial companies and call centres. The financial district is also located here. The city serves as the gateway to the southern part of India with tourists landing in the city and starting their trip to the rest of the region. Chennai was the most visited Indian city by foreign tourists in and issued the third highest number of visas on arrival in In , the city received 4,, foreign tourists making it the 3rd most visited city in India after Delhi and Mumbai and 43rd most visited city in the world by foreign tourists.

Chennai is the base for the Tamil film industry, known as Kollywood. Many film personalities have gone on to become politicians including C. Zoo, beaches, and wildlife parks form the primary recreation areas of the city. Covelong beach lies along the coromandal coast. The center has one of the world's largest collections of reptiles and has bred 14 of the 23 existing species of crocodiles and alligators. Guindy National Park , a protected area of Tamil Nadu, has a children's park and a snake park , which gained statutory recognition as a medium zoo from the Central Zoo Authority of India in Chennai is one of the few cities in the world that accommodates a national park , the Guindy National Park , within its limits.

The seven zones of the old corporation limits has about parks, many of which suffer poor maintenance. Built in , Madras Boat Club is the second oldest surviving Indian rowing club. Chennai is home to several malls, due to its status as an IT hub. The city's retail industry is majorly concentrated in T. Nagar which accounts for major share jewellery and clothes sold in Chennai. As of [update] , the city is India's second largest exporter of information technology IT and business process outsourcing BPO services. Industrialisation in the city dates back to the 16th century, when textile mills manufactured goods which were exported to British during its war with France.

According to Forbes magazine, Chennai is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and is rated in the "Forbes-Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the World". Chennai has a diversified economic base anchored by the automobile, software services, hardware manufacturing, health care and financial services industries. The city is base to around 40 percent of India's automobile industry and 45 percent of auto components industry. Chennai has a stock exchange called the Madras Stock Exchange.

A study conducted by the National Housing Bank on the residential price index of Indian cities showed that Chennai experienced the highest growth after the — global financial crisis. The city also has a permanent exhibition complex in Nandambakkam called the Chennai Trade Centre. Chennai is one of four Indian cities connected to the rest of the world by undersea fibre-optic cables , the other three being Mumbai , Kochi , and Tuticorin. The 3,km-long, 8-fiber-paired i2i has the world's largest design capacity of 8.

There are four land line companies [] [] providing Commercial and domestic broadband Internet services. Chennai was the first Indian city to deploy Wi-Fi internet access in a widespread manner. The peak evening demand of the city is 1, MW which is about 50 percent of the state's peak evening demand of 3, megawatt. This includes 37 percent consumption by the industrial sector, 30 percent by the domestic sector, 18 percent by the agricultural sector, and The peak power consumption is for four months between May and August, with the city consuming the highest during June because it is when the summer peaks.

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On 20 June , the city consumed the highest of 52, MU. As of [update] , the city consumes around 3. Hourly consumption of power in the city is about 2, to 3, MW. However, this situation was eradicated by the end of The Reserve Bank of India ranked Chennai as third largest deposit centre and third largest credit centre nationwide as of June Prior to the advent of modern commercial banks, the banking services in the city were offered to the public by Nattukottai Chettiars or Nagarathars , chiefly in and around the neighbourhood of George Town, who offered loans as well as accepted money deposits from the public, in addition to offering loans to the agricultural labourers.

Even today, many of the banking offices are housed in heritage structures belonging to the colonial era that are chiefly clustered around Rajaji road in George Town. Chennai has world-class medical facilities, including both government-run and private hospitals. The National Institute of Siddha is one of the seven apex national-level educational institutions that promote excellence in Indian system of medicine and Ayurveda.

The city has been termed India's health capital. The city has more than 12, beds in its hospitals, [] including about 5, in multi-specialty hospitals in the private sector and over 6, beds in the public sector.

The city generates 4, tonnes of garbage every day of which tonnes are plastic waste. It handled about The city is connected to major hubs across Asia, Europe, and North America through more than 30 national and international carriers. The existing airport is undergoing further modernisation and expansion with an addition of 1, Chennai hosts the headquarters of the Southern Railway. The city has four main railway terminals. Chennai Central station, the city's largest, provides access to other major cities as well as many other smaller towns across India, [] whereas Chennai Egmore provides access to destinations primarily within Tamil Nadu; however, it also handles a few inter—state trains.

It consists of four broad gauge sectors terminating at two locations in the city, namely Chennai Central and Chennai Beach. While three sectors are operated on-grade, the fourth sector is majorly an elevated corridor , which links Chennai Beach to Velachery and is interlinked with the remaining rail network.

Chennai Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city and was partially commenced on 29 June To improve the city's public transportation system and prepare the city for the future commuting needs, the Chennai Metro was planned and approved by the state cabinet during for which construction began on The first stretch of Phase-I, covering 7 stations from Koyambedu to Alandur over a distance of 10 kilometres 6.

The entire phase-I is scheduled to be operational by end of Chennai is one of the cities in India that is connected by the Golden Quadrilateral system of National Highways. Chennai is connected to other parts of the state and the Union Territory of Puducherry by state highways. The government has constructed grade separators and flyovers at major intersections, and built Inner Ring Road and Outer Ring Road.

There are many private bus companies that provide similar transport services. The MTC provides an exclusive intracity bus service, consisting of 3, buses on routes, which provides transportation to The other means of road transport in the city include vans, regionally known as Maxi Cabs , auto rickshaws , on-call metered taxis and tourist taxis.

Chennai outer ring road is The city is served by two major ports, Chennai Port , one of the largest artificial ports in India, and Ennore Port. The Chennai port is the largest in Bay of Bengal, with an annual cargo tonnage of 6. The port handles transportation of automobiles, motorcycles and general industrial cargo. Newspaper publishing started in Chennai with the launch of a weekly, The Madras Courier , in The Spectator , founded in , was the first English newspaper in Chennai to be owned by an Indian and became the city's first daily newspaper in As of [update] , The Hindu was the city's most read English newspaper, with a daily circulation of , Doordarshan runs two terrestrial television channels and two satellite television channels from its Chennai centre, which was set up in The Sun Network one of India's largest broadcasting companies is based in the city.

Chennai ranks second among Indian metropolitan city centres with a The public school system is managed by the Chennai Corporation with an enrolment of , students in over schools. English is the medium of instruction in the majority of institutions for higher education. The Connemara Public Library is one of four National Depository Centres in India that receive a copy of all newspapers and books published in the country. The fair is typically held for about 10 days between the last week of December and the third week of January. Chennai also has Indian Maritime University to impart quality education in maritime management, engineering and different pre sea courses.

This is the only central university, headquartered in Chennai to impart maritime education in India. Cricket is the most popular sport in Chennai. Chidambaram Stadium established in is among the oldest cricket stadium in India. Prominent cricketers from the city include former cricket captains S. Sekhar and Glenn Mcgrath , is based in Chennai. The club uses the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium nicknamed the Marina Arena as their home ground and are champions of the Indian Super League in and Chennai was the venue of the South Asian Games.

The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium is associated with hockey and was venue for the international hockey tournament the Men's Champions Trophy and the Men's Asia Cup. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is associated for hosting Football and athletic competitions, it also houses a multi—purpose indoor complex for competition in volleyball, basketball and table tennis. Water sports are played in the Velachery Aquatic Complex.

Madras Boat Club founded in and the Royal Madras Yacht Club founded by Sir Francis Spring in promote the sailing sports in Chennai, and organise national and international sailing events. Motor racing events are held on a special purpose track in Irungattukottai , Sriperumbudur , [] which has also been the venue for several international competitions. The city has two 18—hole golf courses, the Cosmopolitan Club and the Gymkhana Club , both established in the late nineteenth century. The city has a rugby union team called the Chennai Cheetahs. Previous world chess champion Viswanathan Anand grew up in Chennai.

The consular presence in the city dates back to , when William Abbott was appointed US consular agent for South India. It was ranked among the top globally in issuing 'L' and 'H' category visas for workers and professionals and was ranked eighth globally in terms of all category of visas being issued. Chennai has sister city relationships with the following cities of the world:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Chennai disambiguation. For other uses, see Madras disambiguation. Megacity in Tamil Nadu, India.

Clockwise from top right: Names of Chennai in different languages.

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History of Chennai and Timeline of Chennai history. Flora and fauna of Chennai. Water management in Chennai. List of tallest buildings in Chennai and Heritage structures in Chennai. Demographics of Chennai and Religion in Chennai. Religions in Chennai [] Religion Percent Hinduism. List of tallest buildings in Chennai. Banking and Finance in Chennai. Cloverleaf interchange at Kathipara Junction. Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus. Chennai Port view from the Marina Beach. Media in Chennai and List of Newspapers in Chennai.

List of Tamil-language television channels and Broadcasting in Chennai. Schools in Chennai and Education in India. List of diplomatic missions in Chennai. List of twin towns and sister cities in India. Retrieved 8 December About Corporation of Chennai. Retrieved 28 December Archived from the original PDF on 24 April Retrieved 24 April The New Indian Express. Retrieved 30 May Official Website of Greater Chennai Corporation. Million plus cities in India as per Census ". Press Information Bureau, Mumbai. Retrieved 20 August Retrieved January 31, Retrieved 13 October Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 12 October Enterprise and cloud applications.

Industries Industries we serve. Thought Leadership A resource for business technology executives with articles and viewpoints from across the tech industry. Winning through change Harvard Business Review Analytic Services survey highlights how digital leaders are succeeding. About Us Company Overview More. Tesco streamlines IT support The retailer brought a new level of IT support to its employees through a new walk-in center. Mobile food ordering at Yum! Brands DXC developed a mobile app and mobile website ordering platform, enabling revenue improvement and cost reduction.