Dating antique axes

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If the markings are faint it might scour them off. Would love to hear how it pans out I have found 6 axe heads this year! Originally Posted by Neil in West Jersey. I would recommend electrolysis above the grinder. The others are right.

The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle , or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1. It was later fastened to a wooden handle.

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The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached hafted in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper , bronze , iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine , as it is a type of wedge , or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade.

The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry.

A tool of similar origin is the billhook. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well.

Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side the poll. As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat. Initially axes were tools of stone called hand axes , used without handles hafts , and had knapped chipped cutting edges of flint or other stone. Stone axes made with ground cutting edges were first developed sometime in the late Pleistocene in Australia , where ground-edge axe fragments from sites in Arnhem Land date back at least 44, years; [1] [2] ground-edge axes were later invented independently in Japan sometime around 38, BP, and are known from several Upper Palaeolithic sites on the islands of Honshu and Kyushu.

The first true hafted axes are known from the Mesolithic period c. Few wooden hafts have been found from this period, but it seems that the axe was normally hafted by wedging. Birch-tar and raw-hide lashings were used to fix the blade.

Antique Axe Head Guides

Sometimes a short section of deer antler an "antler sleeve" was used, [ citation needed ] which prevented the splitting of the haft and softened the impact on the stone blade itself, helping absorb the impact of each axe blow and lessening the chances of breaking the handle. The antler was hollowed out at one end to create a socket for the axehead. The antler sheath was then either perforated and a handle inserted into it or set in a hole made in the handle instead.

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The distribution of stone axes is an important indication of prehistoric trade. In Europe, Neolithic "axe factories", where thousands of ground stone axes were roughed out, are known from many places, such as:. Stone axes are still produced and in use today in parts of Papua , Indonesia. These axes were flat and hafted much like their stone predecessors. Based on the variety of weights and model numbers known between and the number is estimated to be approximately The specific years during which Stanley provided specialty hatchets for the Bell System has yet to be determined.

It is believed that these hatchets were available from sometime in the s until at least sometime in the s. At this point no catalog reference is known extant but it is surmised they may have been provided through special orders. Also unresolved is whether Stanley provided such hatchets to other utility companies or other concerns in addition to the Bell System.

Numerous examples have been observed that include a square opening cut through the hatchet blade. Such hatchets are referred to as hatchet-wrenches because the square opening accommodated the square bolt heads used to secure different apparatus to utility poles. The hatchet-wrench was not the only axe that Stanley provided to the Bell System. Long handle single-bit axes have also been observed with both the Stanley marking and the words Bell System in what appear to be factory applied markings.

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In addition to hatchets and house axes, Stanley also offered a limited variety of long-handled axes. The introduction of long-. The maximum number of long-handled axes that were included in this group appear to have been offered between and After that some offerings were deleted from company catalogs.

It should be noted that the original long-handled axe numbering system appears to have left room for additions but instead of expanding the line it was reduced. By the late s the line included only five offerings. The Jersey, Cruiser and Western patterns were deleted in January of By Stanley was offering one camp axe which was actually a hatchet and three long-handled axes.

No long-handled axes were offered after June Decals such as these were applied to some heads, some handles and in some cases, both. Conjecture suggests that Stanley may have introduced the long-handled axe line because they had obtained the capability to actually manufacture that type of axe themselves. When the line was introduced into the US the era of axes was in decline.

Many of the well-known axe manufacturers had combined with other manufacturers or just ceased to do business. The demand for long-handled axes had diminished so severely that a few of the early axe manufacturers switched to manufacturing other forged tools. Some of those companies were sold and their assets, especially the patents and proprietary brand names, were acquired by companies that chose to continue the use of some brands but they were manufactured overseas.

It is not clear at this time if Stanley continued to market axes bearing their name in other countries, especially countries in Central and South America. Perhaps in time that question will also be resolved. Representation of a diagram as it appeared in. To either side of the notched rectangle the stamping included the capital letter "M". To date this mark raises the question as to what the letters "M" refer to before and after the notch. At this point, suggestions are that the letters may mean Mexican Made of perhaps Mann Made.

In the Mann Edge Tool Co. It is believed that part of the overall agreement was that the Mann E.

Antique Axe Head Guide for Metal Detecting

That suggests the possibility that the Mann Edge Tool Co. The answers to these questions are currently being explored. Such a pattern has not been seen or reported as appearing in any Stanley catalogs. Adding to the confusion is the observance of a Stanley label on a machete along with the wording "Made By Stanley Tools in Columbia, S.